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linux:bash:ps_mem

Скрипт ps_mem (python)

Скрипт ps_mem (github) показывает используемую память процессами. Несмотря на то что есть top/htop, vmstat и другие, ps_mem к примеру поможет быстрее найти убийцу виновника OOM-killer.

В CentOS скрипт доступен в base репозитории

# yum install ps_mem

Для установки в других дистрибутивах

# cd /tmp
# wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pixelb/ps_mem/master/ps_mem.py
# chmod +x ps_mem.py
# cp -av ps_mem.py /usr/local/bin/psmem
# which psmem
# psmem

Также можно установить через pip

# pip install ps_mem

Доступные опции

-h, -help                   Show this help
-p <pid>[,pid2,...pidN]     Only show memory usage PIDs in the specified list
-s, --split-args            Show and separate by, all command line arguments
-t, --total                 Show only the total value
-d, --discriminate-by-pid   Show by process rather than by program
-S, --swap                  Show swap information
-w <N>                      Measure and show process memory every N seconds

Запуск без опций

# ps_mem 
 Private  +   Shared  =  RAM used       Program 

148.0 KiB +  35.5 KiB = 183.5 KiB       acpid
220.0 KiB +  83.0 KiB = 303.0 KiB       atd
252.0 KiB +  62.0 KiB = 314.0 KiB       xinetd
232.0 KiB + 105.5 KiB = 337.5 KiB       agetty [updated] (2)
484.0 KiB + 143.0 KiB = 627.0 KiB       auditd
308.0 KiB + 337.0 KiB = 645.0 KiB       mysqld_safe
572.0 KiB + 125.5 KiB = 697.5 KiB       systemd-udevd
668.0 KiB +  74.5 KiB = 742.5 KiB       crond
780.0 KiB + 108.5 KiB = 888.5 KiB       systemd-logind [updated]
832.0 KiB + 108.0 KiB = 940.0 KiB       dbus-daemon [updated]
700.0 KiB + 340.0 KiB =   1.0 MiB       bash
  1.1 MiB + 172.0 KiB =   1.2 MiB       master
  1.3 MiB + 482.0 KiB =   1.7 MiB       qmgr
  1.4 MiB + 464.0 KiB =   1.9 MiB       pickup
  2.6 MiB + 149.5 KiB =   2.7 MiB       systemd
  2.9 MiB +   1.2 MiB =   4.1 MiB       sshd (2)
  2.5 MiB +   1.8 MiB =   4.3 MiB       nginx (2)
  2.8 MiB +   2.6 MiB =   5.4 MiB       rsyslogd
  4.0 MiB +   2.5 MiB =   6.6 MiB       systemd-journald [updated]
 22.7 MiB + 219.0 KiB =  23.0 MiB       named
242.1 MiB +  13.2 MiB = 255.3 MiB       httpd (11)
528.3 MiB + 505.0 KiB = 528.8 MiB       mysqld

Исходный код

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#!/usr/bin/env python
 
# Try to determine how much RAM is currently being used per program.
# Note per _program_, not per process. So for example this script
# will report RAM used by all httpd process together. In detail it reports:
# sum(private RAM for program processes) + sum(Shared RAM for program processes)
# The shared RAM is problematic to calculate, and this script automatically
# selects the most accurate method available for your kernel.
 
# Licence: LGPLv2
# Author:  P@draigBrady.com
# Source:  http://www.pixelbeat.org/scripts/ps_mem.py
 
# V1.0      06 Jul 2005     Initial release
# V1.1      11 Aug 2006     root permission required for accuracy
# V1.2      08 Nov 2006     Add total to output
#                           Use KiB,MiB,... for units rather than K,M,...
# V1.3      22 Nov 2006     Ignore shared col from /proc/$pid/statm for
#                           2.6 kernels up to and including 2.6.9.
#                           There it represented the total file backed extent
# V1.4      23 Nov 2006     Remove total from output as it's meaningless
#                           (the shared values overlap with other programs).
#                           Display the shared column. This extra info is
#                           useful, especially as it overlaps between programs.
# V1.5      26 Mar 2007     Remove redundant recursion from human()
# V1.6      05 Jun 2007     Also report number of processes with a given name.
#                           Patch from riccardo.murri@gmail.com
# V1.7      20 Sep 2007     Use PSS from /proc/$pid/smaps if available, which
#                           fixes some over-estimation and allows totalling.
#                           Enumerate the PIDs directly rather than using ps,
#                           which fixes the possible race between reading
#                           RSS with ps, and shared memory with this program.
#                           Also we can show non truncated command names.
# V1.8      28 Sep 2007     More accurate matching for stats in /proc/$pid/smaps
#                           as otherwise could match libraries causing a crash.
#                           Patch from patrice.bouchand.fedora@gmail.com
# V1.9      20 Feb 2008     Fix invalid values reported when PSS is available.
#                           Reported by Andrey Borzenkov <arvidjaar@mail.ru>
# V3.6      16 Oct 2015
#   http://github.com/pixelb/scripts/commits/master/scripts/ps_mem.py
 
# Notes:
#
# All interpreted programs where the interpreter is started
# by the shell or with env, will be merged to the interpreter
# (as that's what's given to exec). For e.g. all python programs
# starting with "#!/usr/bin/env python" will be grouped under python.
# You can change this by using the full command line but that will
# have the undesirable affect of splitting up programs started with
# differing parameters (for e.g. mingetty tty[1-6]).
#
# For 2.6 kernels up to and including 2.6.13 and later 2.4 redhat kernels
# (rmap vm without smaps) it can not be accurately determined how many pages
# are shared between processes in general or within a program in our case:
# http://lkml.org/lkml/2005/7/6/250
# A warning is printed if overestimation is possible.
# In addition for 2.6 kernels up to 2.6.9 inclusive, the shared
# value in /proc/$pid/statm is the total file-backed extent of a process.
# We ignore that, introducing more overestimation, again printing a warning.
# Since kernel 2.6.23-rc8-mm1 PSS is available in smaps, which allows
# us to calculate a more accurate value for the total RAM used by programs.
#
# Programs that use CLONE_VM without CLONE_THREAD are discounted by assuming
# they're the only programs that have the same /proc/$PID/smaps file for
# each instance.  This will fail if there are multiple real instances of a
# program that then use CLONE_VM without CLONE_THREAD, or if a clone changes
# its memory map while we're checksumming each /proc/$PID/smaps.
#
# I don't take account of memory allocated for a program
# by other programs. For e.g. memory used in the X server for
# a program could be determined, but is not.
#
# FreeBSD is supported if linprocfs is mounted at /compat/linux/proc/
# FreeBSD 8.0 supports up to a level of Linux 2.6.16
 
import getopt
import time
import errno
import os
import sys
 
# The following exits cleanly on Ctrl-C or EPIPE
# while treating other exceptions as before.
def std_exceptions(etype, value, tb):
    sys.excepthook = sys.__excepthook__
    if issubclass(etype, KeyboardInterrupt):
        pass
    elif issubclass(etype, IOError) and value.errno == errno.EPIPE:
        pass
    else:
        sys.__excepthook__(etype, value, tb)
sys.excepthook = std_exceptions
 
#
#   Define some global variables
#
 
PAGESIZE = os.sysconf("SC_PAGE_SIZE") / 1024 #KiB
our_pid = os.getpid()
 
have_pss = 0
 
class Proc:
    def __init__(self):
        uname = os.uname()
        if uname[0] == "FreeBSD":
            self.proc = '/compat/linux/proc'
        else:
            self.proc = '/proc'
 
    def path(self, *args):
        return os.path.join(self.proc, *(str(a) for a in args))
 
    def open(self, *args):
        try:
            if sys.version_info < (3,):
                return open(self.path(*args))
            else:
                return open(self.path(*args), errors='ignore')
        except (IOError, OSError):
            val = sys.exc_info()[1]
            if (val.errno == errno.ENOENT or # kernel thread or process gone
                val.errno == errno.EPERM):
                raise LookupError
            raise
 
proc = Proc()
 
 
#
#   Functions
#
 
def parse_options():
    try:
        long_options = ['split-args', 'help', 'total']
        opts, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], "shtp:w:", long_options)
    except getopt.GetoptError:
        sys.stderr.write(help())
        sys.exit(3)
 
    if len(args):
        sys.stderr.write("Extraneous arguments: %s\n" % args)
        sys.exit(3)
 
    # ps_mem.py options
    split_args = False
    pids_to_show = None
    watch = None
    only_total = False
 
    for o, a in opts:
        if o in ('-s', '--split-args'):
            split_args = True
        if o in ('-t', '--total'):
            only_total = True
        if o in ('-h', '--help'):
            sys.stdout.write(help())
            sys.exit(0)
        if o in ('-p',):
            try:
                pids_to_show = [int(x) for x in a.split(',')]
            except:
                sys.stderr.write(help())
                sys.exit(3)
        if o in ('-w',):
            try:
                watch = int(a)
            except:
                sys.stderr.write(help())
                sys.exit(3)
 
    return (split_args, pids_to_show, watch, only_total)
 
def help():
    help_msg = 'Usage: ps_mem [OPTION]...\n' \
    'Show program core memory usage\n' \
    '\n' \
    '  -h, -help                   Show this help\n' \
    '  -p <pid>[,pid2,...pidN]     Only show memory usage PIDs in the specified list\n' \
    '  -s, --split-args            Show and separate by, all command line arguments\n' \
    '  -t, --total                 Show only the total value\n' \
    '  -w <N>                      Measure and show process memory every N seconds\n'
 
    return help_msg
 
#(major,minor,release)
def kernel_ver():
    kv = proc.open('sys/kernel/osrelease').readline().split(".")[:3]
    last = len(kv)
    if last == 2:
        kv.append('0')
    last -= 1
    while last > 0:
        for char in "-_":
            kv[last] = kv[last].split(char)[0]
        try:
            int(kv[last])
        except:
            kv[last] = 0
        last -= 1
    return (int(kv[0]), int(kv[1]), int(kv[2]))
 
 
#return Private,Shared
#Note shared is always a subset of rss (trs is not always)
def getMemStats(pid):
    global have_pss
    mem_id = pid #unique
    Private_lines = []
    Shared_lines = []
    Pss_lines = []
    Rss = (int(proc.open(pid, 'statm').readline().split()[1])
           * PAGESIZE)
    if os.path.exists(proc.path(pid, 'smaps')): #stat
        lines = proc.open(pid, 'smaps').readlines() #open
        # Note we checksum smaps as maps is usually but
        # not always different for separate processes.
        mem_id = hash(''.join(lines))
        for line in lines:
            if line.startswith("Shared"):
                Shared_lines.append(line)
            elif line.startswith("Private"):
                Private_lines.append(line)
            elif line.startswith("Pss"):
                have_pss = 1
                Pss_lines.append(line)
        Shared = sum([int(line.split()[1]) for line in Shared_lines])
        Private = sum([int(line.split()[1]) for line in Private_lines])
        #Note Shared + Private = Rss above
        #The Rss in smaps includes video card mem etc.
        if have_pss:
            pss_adjust = 0.5 # add 0.5KiB as this avg error due to trunctation
            Pss = sum([float(line.split()[1])+pss_adjust for line in Pss_lines])
            Shared = Pss - Private
    elif (2,6,1) <= kernel_ver() <= (2,6,9):
        Shared = 0 #lots of overestimation, but what can we do?
        Private = Rss
    else:
        Shared = int(proc.open(pid, 'statm').readline().split()[2])
        Shared *= PAGESIZE
        Private = Rss - Shared
    return (Private, Shared, mem_id)
 
 
def getCmdName(pid, split_args):
    cmdline = proc.open(pid, 'cmdline').read().split("\0")
    if cmdline[-1] == '' and len(cmdline) > 1:
        cmdline = cmdline[:-1]
 
    path = proc.path(pid, 'exe')
    try:
        path = os.readlink(path)
        # Some symlink targets were seen to contain NULs on RHEL 5 at least
        # https://github.com/pixelb/scripts/pull/10, so take string up to NUL
        path = path.split('\0')[0]
    except OSError:
        val = sys.exc_info()[1]
        if (val.errno == errno.ENOENT or # either kernel thread or process gone
            val.errno == errno.EPERM):
            raise LookupError
        raise
 
    if split_args:
        return " ".join(cmdline)
    if path.endswith(" (deleted)"):
        path = path[:-10]
        if os.path.exists(path):
            path += " [updated]"
        else:
            #The path could be have prelink stuff so try cmdline
            #which might have the full path present. This helped for:
            #/usr/libexec/notification-area-applet.#prelink#.fX7LCT (deleted)
            if os.path.exists(cmdline[0]):
                path = cmdline[0] + " [updated]"
            else:
                path += " [deleted]"
    exe = os.path.basename(path)
    cmd = proc.open(pid, 'status').readline()[6:-1]
    if exe.startswith(cmd):
        cmd = exe #show non truncated version
        #Note because we show the non truncated name
        #one can have separated programs as follows:
        #584.0 KiB +   1.0 MiB =   1.6 MiB    mozilla-thunder (exe -> bash)
        # 56.0 MiB +  22.2 MiB =  78.2 MiB    mozilla-thunderbird-bin
    if sys.version_info < (3,):
        return cmd
    else:
        return cmd.encode(errors='replace').decode()
 
 
#The following matches "du -h" output
#see also human.py
def human(num, power="Ki", units=None):
    if units is None:
        powers = ["Ki", "Mi", "Gi", "Ti"]
        while num >= 1000: #4 digits
            num /= 1024.0
            power = powers[powers.index(power)+1]
        return "%.1f %sB" % (num, power)
    else:
        return "%.f" % ((num * 1024) / units)
 
 
def cmd_with_count(cmd, count):
    if count > 1:
        return "%s (%u)" % (cmd, count)
    else:
        return cmd
 
#Warn of possible inaccuracies
#2 = accurate & can total
#1 = accurate only considering each process in isolation
#0 = some shared mem not reported
#-1= all shared mem not reported
def shared_val_accuracy():
    """http://wiki.apache.org/spamassassin/TopSharedMemoryBug"""
    kv = kernel_ver()
    pid = os.getpid()
    if kv[:2] == (2,4):
        if proc.open('meminfo').read().find("Inact_") == -1:
            return 1
        return 0
    elif kv[:2] == (2,6):
        if os.path.exists(proc.path(pid, 'smaps')):
            if proc.open(pid, 'smaps').read().find("Pss:")!=-1:
                return 2
            else:
                return 1
        if (2,6,1) <= kv <= (2,6,9):
            return -1
        return 0
    elif kv[0] > 2 and os.path.exists(proc.path(pid, 'smaps')):
        return 2
    else:
        return 1
 
def show_shared_val_accuracy( possible_inacc, only_total=False ):
    level = ("Warning","Error")[only_total]
    if possible_inacc == -1:
        sys.stderr.write(
         "%s: Shared memory is not reported by this system.\n" % level
        )
        sys.stderr.write(
         "Values reported will be too large, and totals are not reported\n"
        )
    elif possible_inacc == 0:
        sys.stderr.write(
         "%s: Shared memory is not reported accurately by this system.\n" % level
        )
        sys.stderr.write(
         "Values reported could be too large, and totals are not reported\n"
        )
    elif possible_inacc == 1:
        sys.stderr.write(
         "%s: Shared memory is slightly over-estimated by this system\n"
         "for each program, so totals are not reported.\n" % level
        )
    sys.stderr.close()
    if only_total and possible_inacc != 2:
        sys.exit(1)
 
def get_memory_usage( pids_to_show, split_args, include_self=False, only_self=False ):
    cmds = {}
    shareds = {}
    mem_ids = {}
    count = {}
    for pid in os.listdir(proc.path('')):
        if not pid.isdigit():
            continue
        pid = int(pid)
 
        # Some filters
        if only_self and pid != our_pid:
            continue
        if pid == our_pid and not include_self:
            continue
        if pids_to_show is not None and pid not in pids_to_show:
            continue
 
        try:
            cmd = getCmdName(pid, split_args)
        except LookupError:
            #operation not permitted
            #kernel threads don't have exe links or
            #process gone
            continue
 
        try:
            private, shared, mem_id = getMemStats(pid)
        except RuntimeError:
            continue #process gone
        if shareds.get(cmd):
            if have_pss: #add shared portion of PSS together
                shareds[cmd] += shared
            elif shareds[cmd] < shared: #just take largest shared val
                shareds[cmd] = shared
        else:
            shareds[cmd] = shared
        cmds[cmd] = cmds.setdefault(cmd, 0) + private
        if cmd in count:
            count[cmd] += 1
        else:
            count[cmd] = 1
        mem_ids.setdefault(cmd, {}).update({mem_id:None})
 
    #Add shared mem for each program
    total = 0
    for cmd in cmds:
        cmd_count = count[cmd]
        if len(mem_ids[cmd]) == 1 and cmd_count > 1:
            # Assume this program is using CLONE_VM without CLONE_THREAD
            # so only account for one of the processes
            cmds[cmd] /= cmd_count
            if have_pss:
                shareds[cmd] /= cmd_count
        cmds[cmd] = cmds[cmd] + shareds[cmd]
        total += cmds[cmd] #valid if PSS available
 
    sorted_cmds = sorted(cmds.items(), key=lambda x:x[1])
    sorted_cmds = [x for x in sorted_cmds if x[1]]
 
    return sorted_cmds, shareds, count, total
 
def print_header():
    sys.stdout.write(" Private  +   Shared  =  RAM used\tProgram\n\n")
 
def print_memory_usage(sorted_cmds, shareds, count, total):
    for cmd in sorted_cmds:
        sys.stdout.write("%9s + %9s = %9s\t%s\n" %
                         (human(cmd[1]-shareds[cmd[0]]),
                          human(shareds[cmd[0]]), human(cmd[1]),
                          cmd_with_count(cmd[0], count[cmd[0]])))
    if have_pss:
        sys.stdout.write("%s\n%s%9s\n%s\n" %
                         ("-" * 33, " " * 24, human(total), "=" * 33))
 
def verify_environment():
    if os.geteuid() != 0:
        sys.stderr.write("Sorry, root permission required.\n")
        sys.stderr.close()
        sys.exit(1)
 
    try:
        kv = kernel_ver()
    except (IOError, OSError):
        val = sys.exc_info()[1]
        if val.errno == errno.ENOENT:
            sys.stderr.write(
              "Couldn't access " + proc.path('') + "\n"
              "Only GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (with linprocfs) are supported\n")
            sys.exit(2)
        else:
            raise
 
def main():
    split_args, pids_to_show, watch, only_total = parse_options()
    verify_environment()
 
    if not only_total:
        print_header()
 
    if watch is not None:
        try:
            sorted_cmds = True
            while sorted_cmds:
                sorted_cmds, shareds, count, total = get_memory_usage( pids_to_show, split_args )
                if only_total and have_pss:
                    sys.stdout.write(human(total, units=1)+'\n')
                elif not only_total:
                    print_memory_usage(sorted_cmds, shareds, count, total)
                time.sleep(watch)
            else:
                sys.stdout.write('Process does not exist anymore.\n')
        except KeyboardInterrupt:
            pass
    else:
        # This is the default behavior
        sorted_cmds, shareds, count, total = get_memory_usage( pids_to_show, split_args )
        if only_total and have_pss:
            sys.stdout.write(human(total, units=1)+'\n')
        elif not only_total:
            print_memory_usage(sorted_cmds, shareds, count, total)
 
    # We must close explicitly, so that any EPIPE exception
    # is handled by our excepthook, rather than the default
    # one which is reenabled after this script finishes.
    sys.stdout.close()
 
    vm_accuracy = shared_val_accuracy()
    show_shared_val_accuracy( vm_accuracy, only_total )
 
if __name__ == '__main__': main()


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linux/bash/ps_mem.txt · Last modified: 2017/04/09 22:45 (external edit)